OK, in that case, step 1 would be to see whether the microphone shows up and works in the host machine. I’m assuming that the host machine is a Mac and so there is zero chance that I can help you with achieving step 1. You may be implying that step 1 has already been achieved.
The next step would be to configure the VM so that the device is available to the VM. Someone may be able to help out with that, but not me.
The final step would be to try to use the device from within the VM.
As for the question of affording a second real machine … well, if you just want to get an idea of Linux support for particular hardware, buy a Raspberry Pi. Cost: bugger all.
That runs Raspbian (Debian-based) so is fairly indicative of likely success in the Debian family (including Ubuntu, Mint, and PureOS). That could get a bit tricky because if your current device is a laptop then you may need a spare monitor / keyboard / mouse just to set up the Pi initially unless you can borrow / use a friend’s.
Once the Pi is set up, you can
ssh in and do stuff even when the Pi is headless, provided that a) a suitable command exists and b) you know how to use it. (Or if you have a spare monitor, keyboard and mouse then you are a-ok to try things out directly.)
On the Pi, you should be able to use
arecord for basic sound recording from a microphone - and
aplay to play it back assuming that you have speakers connected, otherwise
sftp to move the file back to the computer that you are connecting from and play the file there (but on a Mac you are on your own for how to do that).
To be honest, I haven’t had a lot of difficulty with audio sources and sinks in Linux generally, particularly USB. Unless the vendor goes out of its way to be difficult, it is plug and play.
I don’t think that’s a judgement that I can make for you - not knowing your level of expertise, special areas of expertise, level of perseverance, how much help you can get from any former (or current) Mac users in this forum, …