In the link I posted did you look at “Some iPhone Photos Not Visible While Transferring to Windows?”. From what I understand, even if iCloud isn’t currently “on”, the phone doesn’t have the actual file (it has a cached “optimized” version somewhere else of the file and, so, MTP won’t see the file). Thus you need to:
In Settings > Your Apple ID > iCloud > Photos, switch from “Optimise iPhone Storage” to “Download and Keep Originals”
That said, I’m not sure MTP (Media Transfer Protocol) will handle/show files over 4GB in size.
Again, I don’t have an iPhone and I think this is an iPhone issue rather than a GNU/Linux issue. I use GNU/Linux with an Android phone and mostly deal with music (which doesn’t have filesize issues) —> I had to write my own “sync” (instead of using rsync) since there were issues due to filename mappings). I have noticed that MTP is rather slow (and has limitations).